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Qualitative Research Methods – 5 ECTS


Date and time

Tuesday 22 October 2024 at 09:00 to Friday 25 October 2024 at 14:00

Registration Deadline

Tuesday 10 September 2024 at 23:55

Location

Room TBA, Campus TBA, 2000 Frederiksberg Room TBA
Campus TBA
2000 Frederiksberg

Qualitative Research Methods – 5 ECTS


Course Coordinator: Professor Torsten Ringberg, Department of Marketing

 
Faculty  
Professor Dr. Markus Reihlen
Institute of Management and Organization, Leuphana University of Lüneburg
 
Professor Torsten Ringberg
Department of Marketing, Copenhagen Business School
 
Prerequisites
This PhD seminar is for PhD students (regular and industrial) across business (e.g., organizational, marketing, and management) studies. However, students from other social science disciplines may also find this course relevant for developing a qualitative research approach. The two instructors bring with them extensive experiences from the use of social science theories including how to extract and analyze relevant data using a range of methods, such as case-studies and semi-structured in-depth interviews. Both instructors have published in leading international academic management and marketing journals.
 
Qualitative research is a research strategy that involves large quantities of unstructured data (textual, graphical, audio, and video data) from which deep-seated and influential socio-cognitive drivers are identified—a task that still is impossible for formal, statistical, and stochastic approaches (fx AI). Despite differences, qualitative research approaches share at least the following two assumptions, namely 1) by systematically gathering and analyzing data to elicit deeper understandings of the influence of shared socio-cognitive mindsets among individuals influence their interpretive positions and thought worlds which affect social orientation, behavior and decision making across a wide variety of socio-cultural domains (e.g., technology transformation, communication, gender issues, use of healthcare, branding, knowledge transfer, inter-organizational behavior) and, 2. these understandings might lead to the development of new theories (inductive view). Since qualitative research methods are informed by different philosophical traditions, this course will first cover various philosophical perspectives ranging from positivism to interpretivism and postmodernism.
 
Students will be introduced to theoretical orientations within the interpretive paradigm, and how each draws from a unique epistemological assumption to construct meaning and representation of reality/ies. We also cover various qualitative approaches (e.g., grounded theory, action research, case studies, ZMET) and discuss their pros and cons given participants’ particular research questions. Whereas the case studies and participant observation represent a holistic approach, the ZMET’s semi-structured in-depth interview approach, surfacing subconscious mindsets (mental models), provide insights into what motivate consumer sensemaking and preferences related to a given topic within a group or subculture under study. 
 
Aim
Qualitative methods provide the opportunity to gain new insights into exploring what motivates understanding and behavior. As part of the course students will be introduced to grounded theory (coding) --a widely used systematic analysis of qualitative data. Grounded theory provides structured approach (though coding) to identify deep-seated influential themes and shared socio-cultural (mental) models and assumptions, that subsequently might lead to the construction mid-range theories. The approach is primarily inductive (at times abductive), i.e., there is an interest in exploring topics with an ‘open’ mind enabling theory building within a relevant theoretical framework. The insights from qualitative research can, in addition to theory building, also be used to establish new hypotheses that can then be tested quantitatively (surveys, experimentally, etc.). As such, quantitatively oriented students might also benefit from this course. 
 
The qualitative data analysis is supported by different software packages (e.g., NVivo, Nudist, Atlas.ti, MAXQDA). Only Atlas.ti (quite similar to other softwares) will be covered at a more general level. It is possible to download and install a training version of the software program Atlas.ti 9.0 and Atlast.ti Cloud at a free or discounted rate on your laptop computer. Link: https://atlasti.com/students/ Also, you can consult online tutorials for a more detailed coverage-- see the below links. 
 
Course content
The course requires preparation and participation. You are also required to revise your research proposal, submit it for review by another fellow PhD participant, and provide a review of another fellow PhD participant’s proposal. Throughout the course, we encourage participants to discuss their thoughts, ideas, and perspectives in an open and safe environment. 
 
In order to get a certificate with full ECTS from the Copenhagen Business School you have to pass the following four components:
• Submit a short (minimum 3-page, 1,5 line space) research proposal. Here, you formulate a research problem of your choice (preferably from your own research field, and one you envision using for your PhD), its theoretical contribution and positioning (relevance), its theoretical framework, and the research design (method to collect data). You should hand in the research proposal prior to the course starts. You will present and discuss this in the course with one of the instructors and a smaller group of students. 
 
Within two weeks after the course ends, you submit an updated version of your research proposal based on feedback from the class discussions as well as general knowledge acquired during the course, to the course coordinator. This will then be submitted for review to one of your fellow students. The research proposal needs to address the following issues and will be evaluated confidentially by the instructors with a Pass or Fail (remake):
1. the research problem
2. theoretical positioning (within what general theoretical domain is the research?)
3. theoretical contribution (i.e., what is the essential hook, and is it relevant and interesting), 
4. theoretical framework (is the chosen framework relevant for explaining the research problem?) 
5. choice of method (is it relevant given the research problem)
 
Within four weeks after the course ends, you must submit (to the author and instructor) a constructive review of an updated research proposal that is written by a fellow PhD participant (see above). The review should also address each of above bullet points. It will be evaluated confidentially by the instructors and graded with a Pass/Remake. We will provide additional information about how to write a constructive review. As part of your review you are encouraged to take the self-guided free review course provided by leading editors in our field at:  https://researcheracademy.elsevier.com/navigating-peer-review/certified-peer-reviewer-course or watch “What JMS wants from reviewers by JMS editor Gideon Markman“ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2yfW0mifno8
    
Teaching style
The instructors cover core material in lectures and entice participants to discuss core issues. Participants present their own research as well as provide feedback on other’s research proposals.   
We look forward to seeing you in Copenhagen. Attendance is taken each day. You are required to be present for all seminar sessions and participate actively throughout, including discussing existing assumptions/theories/methods and presenting your own thoughts and work in class.
Lecture plan
 
Tuesday 22 October 2024
 
9.00 – 12.00 1. Philosophical Foundations of Social Research
•  Introductory lecture and discussion
• Blagoev, B., Costas, J. (2022) Interpretive Inquiry: Constructivist Foundations and Epistemological Consequences, in: M. Reihlen & D. Schoenborn (Eds.), The Springer Handbook of the philosophy of management; section: epistemology of management, 80-97. (PDF 1-20)
Reihlen, M., Habersang, S., Nikolova, N. (2022) Realist Inquiry, in: M. Reihlen & D. Schoenborn (Eds.), The Springer Handbook of the philosophy of management; section: Realism 1-20.
• Reihlen, M., Klaas-Wissing, T., & Ringberg, T. 2007. Metatheories in management studies: Reflections upon individualism, holism, and systemism. M@n@gement, 10(3): 49-69.
• Reihlen, M. &  Schoeneborn, D. (2022) The epistemology of management: An introduction, in: M. Reihlen & D. Schoenborn (Eds.), The Springer Handbook of the philosophy of management; section: epistemology of management, p18-37 (PDF 1-19).
• Link to 45 min summary, copy/paste in to your browser https://www.dropbox.com/s/rocr94pe4mtgo02/01%20Reihlen%20Why%20philosophy%20matters%20in%20social%20research%20compressed.mp4?dl=0
 
12.00-13.00 Lunch
 
 
13.00 –14.30  2. Qualitative Research: Design and Approaches
•  Lecture and discussion
Team activity: systematic comparison/discussion of background theories.
 
• Locke, K. and Golden-Biddle, K. (2004): An introduction to qualitative research: its potential for industrial and organizational psychology, in: Handbook of research methods in industrial and organizational psychology, edited by S. G. Rogelberg, S. G., Blackwell: Oxford: 99-118.
• Maxwell, Joseph A. (2008) Designing a Qualitative Study, in: The SAGE handbook of applied social research methods, 2, edited by Leonard Bickman and Debra J. Rog, Sage: Los Angeles, 214-253.
 
14.30 – 17.00  3. Design and Method of Case Study Research
•  Lecture and discussion • Eisenhardt, K. und Graebner, M. E. (2007): Theory building from cases: opportunities and challenges, in: Academy of Management Journal, 50, 1: 25-32
• Reihlen, M., Schlapfner, J. F., Seeger, M., & Trittin‐Ulbrich, H. (2022). Strategic Venturing as Legitimacy Creation: The Case of Sustainability. Journal of Management Studies, 59(2), 417-459
 
Wednesday 23 October 2024
 
9.00 – 12.00  4. Cognition and mental models 
• Embodied cognition
• Subconscious values
• Subcultures
• Mental models (mindset) of managers and consumers
 
Case study: Subculture of tradesmen, ZMET
• Kock, F., and T. Ringberg (2019) “Embodied cognition effects on tourist behavior” Annals of Tourism Research. Pp1-5 
• Luna, Ringberg & Peracchio (2008), “One Individual, Two Identities: Frame Switching Among Biculturals,” in Journal of Consumer Research Vol. 35, No 2, pp. 279-293. 
• Dolbec, Fischer & Canniford (2021) Something new: Enabled theory building in qualitative marketing research. Vol 21(4) p. 443-461.
• Ringberg, Odekerken-Schröder & Christensen (2007) “A cultural models approach to segmenting consumer recovery expectations,” in Journal of Marketing, Vol.71 (July), pp. 194-214. 
• Ringberg & Reihlen (2008). “Toward a Socio-Cognitive Approach to Knowledge Transfer” in Journal of Management Studies Vol. 45 No 5, pp. 912-935.
 
12.00-13.00 Lunch
 
13.00 – 17.00 5. Interviews. Zaltman Metaphor Elicitation Techniques (ZMET), including laddering and mindmapping 
 
Exercise: Interviews
 
6. ZMET: Identification of collective mindmaps  
 
• Christensen & Olson (2002) “Mapping Consumers’ Mental Models with ZMET”, Psychology & Marketing, Vol 19(6), pp 477-502.
• Hancock, Charles and Carley Foster (2020) “Exploring the ZMET methodology in services marketing” in Journal of Services Marketing 34(1): 48-58.
• Zaltman, G.; Coulter, R. H. 1995. “Seeing the voice of the customer: Metaphor-based advertising research.” in Journal of Advertising Research, 35(4): 35-51.
 
 
Thursday 24 October 2024
 
9.00 – 12.00  7.  Grounded theory and exercises
A) using interview protocol, 
 
B) analysis of rich data based on grounded theory (codes, constructs, themes)
 
Exercises: Analysis & coding
 
• Corbin, J. M., & Strauss, A. (1990). Grounded theory research: Procedures, canons, and evaluative criteria. Zeitschrift für Soziologie, 19(6), 418-427.
• Gioia, D. A., Corley, K. G., & Hamilton, A. L. (2013). Seeking qualitative rigor in inductive research: Notes on the Gioia methodology. Organizational research methods, 16(1), 15-31.
• Suddaby, R. (2006) What grounded theory is not. In: Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 49, No. 4, pp. 633-642.
 
12.00-12.30 Lunch
 
12.30-17.00 8. Presentations and discussions of (incl feedback) students’ research proposals Torsten and Markus divide participants into two groups of students.
 
Within each sub-group, each student presents the core ideas followed by open discussion where everyone participate.
 
Friday 25 October 2024
 
9.00-12.00  Working lunch during class
 
12.00-14.00 9. Final considerations
 
A) Structuring a qualitative research paper, positioning, contribution, theoretical framing and use of relevant methods including examples of use of various research approaches. 
 
B) How to do a review
• Alvesson, M., & Sandberg, J. (2011). Generating research questions through problematization. Academy of Management Review, 36(2), 247-271. 
• Bansal and Corley, K. (2011). From the editors: The coming of age for qualitative research, Academy of Management Journal Vol. 54, No. 2, p. 233-237
• Caligiuri, P & D.C. Thomas (2013) From the Editors: How to write a high-quality review. Journal of International Studies, 44, 547-553
• Maxwell, J. A. (2013). Qualitative research design: An interactive approach. Sage publications, chap. 7
->offers good examples of how to structure a research proposal
• McInnis, D. J (2011) A Framework for Conceptual Contributions in Marketing. Journal of Marketing, Vol 75(July), 136-154
• Ragins, B. R. (2012). Reflections on the craft of clear writing. Academy of Management Review, 37(4), 493-501. 
• Palmatier, Houston & Hulland (2018) Review articles: purpose, process, and structure, J. of the Acad. Science, 46, 1-5
 
Learning objectives
This course will provide you with insights into:
•     Philosophical foundations and principles of qualitative methods.
• How cognition and mental models orient subjects’ as well as your own representations (i.e., conceptual mindsets).
• Identifying and formulate relevant research questions (relevant, interesting, theoretical framework).
• How to design a qualitative research study including various data collection methods, especially ZMET interview techniques, hereunder ethical considerations.
• Developing an interview guide and conducting semi-structured qualitative interviews. 
• Analyzing rich data (textual and mindmaps).
• You will reflect critically on your own research as well as provide constructive review/critique of another fellow PhD student’s research proposals, positioning/contribution, and research processes.
 
Exam
1. Revised research proposal. Within two weeks after the course ends, you submit an updated version of your research proposal based on feedback and general knowledge acquired during the course to the course instructors. Your research proposal will graded Pass/Remake, and subsequently submitted for review to a fellow participant, who we choose. 
2. Review of a research proposal. In order to learn from each other you will also write a constructive review (approx. 2-3 pages long) of a fellow PhD participant’s updated research proposal and turn this in two weeks after you receive it (i.e., four weeks after the course ends) to the instructors as well as the fellow PhD participant. It will be evaluated by the instructors with either a Pass or Remake. We will provide additional information about how to write a constructive review.
 
Other
When signing up fpr the course, please register your topic of your PhD-thesis or research interests as well as your PhD-supervisor (to CBS) - Name and Email. 
 
Updated course information will be distributed to particiapnts via email. 
 
 
ONLINE TUTORIALS
“How to develop a good research question?”
 
https://www.dropbox.com/scl/fi/9j99siusbmwqfa7c3l78l/Research-questions-compressed.mp4?rlkey=y4gaisg0dd4s03ywr9wkogls8&dl=0
 
Atlas.ti for Windows
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XqUFYQVrjwY&list=PL8CTEdsSSmZEQX8CUE7CFKUeFg57bxGUg
 
Atlas.ti for Mac
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=24CP6fvGJo4
Approaches to Coding by Susanne Friese
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YibqDB0iO-0
 
Additional useful qualitative research literature
Philosophical Foundations of Social Research Pre-reading 
• Alvesson, M., & Sköldberg, K. (2009). Reflexive methodology: New vistas for qualitative research. Sage: London, chap. 1-3. 
• Bunge, M. (1996). Finding philosophy in social science, New Haven: Yale University Press. 
• Crotty, M. (1998). The foundations of social research. Meaning and perspective in the research process, Sage: London. 
 
Qualitative Research Methods 
Overview of articles & Handbooks
• Flick, Uwe; von Kardorff, Ernst; Steinke, Ines (Eds.) (2004). A companion to qualitative research, Sage: London.
• Maxwell, J. A. (2012). Qualitative research design: An interactive approach (Vol. 41). Sage publications.
• Miles, M.B.; Huberman, M.A. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook, 2nd. ed., Thousand Oaks: Sage.
 
Action Research
• Coghlan, D. (2011). Action research: Exploring perspectives on a philosophy of practical knowing. Academy of Management Annals, 5(1), 53-87.
• Reason, P.; Bradbury, H. (2013). The Sage handbook of action research: Participative inquiry and practice. Sage: London.
 
Case study research
• Dyer, W.G.; Wilkins, A.L. (1991), ‘Better Stories, Not Better Constructs, To Generate Better Theory: A Rejoinder to Eisenhardt’, Academy of Management Review, 16, 3, pp. 613-619.
• Eisenhardt, K. M. (1989), Building theories from case study research, Academy of Management Review, Vol. 14, No. 4, S. 532–550.
• Gibbert, M., Ruigrok, W., & Wicki, B. (2008). What passes as a rigorous case study?. Strategic management journal, 29(13), 1465-1474.Langley, A. (1999). Strategies for theorizing from process data. Academy of Management Review, 24(4), 691-710. 
 
Ethnography 
• Hammersley, M., & Atkinson, P. (2007). Ethnography: Principles in practice: Routledge.
• Smets, M.; Burke, G.; Jarzabkowski, P. (2014) Charting new territory for organizational ethnography: Insights from a team-based video ethnography, Journal of Organizational Ethnography, 3(1):10-26.
 
Grounded Theory
• Bryant, A.; Charmaz, K. (Eds.) (2007) The SAGE Handbook of Grounded Theory, Sage: Thousand Oaks.
• Glaser, B.; Strauss, A. (1967): The discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research, Aldine: Chicago.
• Glaser, B. G. 1992. Basics of grounded theory analysis. Mill Valley, California: Sociology Press.
• Locke, K. (2001): Grounded theory in management research, London: Sage
• O’Reilly, K., Paper, D., & Marx, S. (2012). Demystifying grounded theory for business research. Organizational Research Methods, 15(2), 247-262.
• Strauss, A.; Corbin, J. (1998): Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory, 2nd ed., Sage: Thousand Oaks.
 
Qualitative Meta-Analysis
• Hoon, C. (2013), Meta-synthesis of qualitative case studies: an approach to theory building’, Organizational Research Methods, 16(4): 522–556.
• Finfgeld-Connett, D. (2018). Introduction to Theory-Generating Meta-Synthesis Research. In A Guide to Qualitative Meta-synthesis. Routledge.
• Rousseau,D. M.,Manning, J.,&Denyer,D. (2008). Evidencein management and organizational science: Assembling the field’s full weight to scientific knowledge through synthesis. Academy of Management Annals, 2, 475-515
 
Zaltman Metaphor Elicitation Technique (ZMET)
• Kunst, Ringberg, & Vatrapu (2022), Beyond popularity: A user perspective on observable behaviours in a digital platform. In Information Systems Journal. (May) Vol. 32 Issue 3, p595-622.
• Ringberg & Gupta (2003), “The Importance of Understanding the Symbolic World of Customers in Asymmetric Business-to-Business Relationships,” in Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing, Special Issue on Qualitative Approaches in B-2-B. Vol. 18 No 6/7.  Pp. 607-626. 
• Zaltman, Gerald (2003). How customers think: Essential insights into the mind of the market. Harvard Business School Press: Cambridge. 

Registration deadline and conditions
The registration deadline is 10 September 2024. If you want to cancel your registration on the course it should be done prior to this mentioned date. By this date we determine whether we have enough registrations to run the course, or who should be offered a seat if we have received too many registrations.

If there are more seats available on the course we leave the registration open by setting a new regsitration deadline in order to fill remaining seats. Once you have received our acceptance/welcome letter to join the course, your registration is binding and we do not refund your course fee. The binding registration date will be the registration deadline mentioned above.

Payment methods
Make sure you choose the correct method of payment upon finalizing your registration:
 
CBS students:
Choose payment method CBS PhD students and the course fee will be deducted from your PhD course budget.
 
Students from other Danish universities: 
Choose payment method Danish Electronic Invoice (EAN). Fill in your EAN number, attention and possible purchase (project) order number.
Do you not pay by EAN number please choose Invoice to pay via electronic bank payment (+71). 
 
Students from foreign universities:
Choose payment method Payment Card. Are you not able to pay by credit card please choose Invoice International to pay via bank transfer. 
 

Event Location

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Organizer Contact Information

CBS PhD School
Bente Ramovic

Phone: +45 3815 3138
bsr.research@cbs.dk

Organizer Contact Information

CBS PhD School
Bente Ramovic

Phone: +45 3815 3138
bsr.research@cbs.dk